Professor Gerald Pollack, a member of the Systems and Quantitative Biology group at the University of Washington, provided a talk at the 2011 Nerenberg Lecture at the University of Western Ontario. His group included various researches like cell biology, molecular basis of biological motion, and interfacial water and energy. During his lecture, he suggested groundbreaking ideas about the possibility of water having a fourth phase apart from liquid, vapor, and ice.
This theory was borne when he placed a sample of polyvinyl alcohol gel into a suspension of latex microspheres in water and he discovered that the microspheres began moving into the water from the interface where gel and water contact to a distance of 16 micrometers. He used other materials for succeeding experiments and it produced the same results. One of Pollack’s students coined the term “exclusion zones” to name the clear regions but then they found out that a previous observation was made by Sir William Harvey in 1912.
Pollack defined the areas that comprise these exclusion zones as hydrophilic surfaces that allow water to spread out. The opposite of these surfaces have a characteristic that turn water into beads. He learned that the best hydrophilic material to use is a synthetic material called Nafion that has the ability to produce an exclusion zone measuring half of a millimeter thick.
Professor Pollack states that surfaces having exclusion zones have a negative charge while the bulk of the water has a positive charge. He refers to this a charged battery of water that is similar to lightning and adds that the sun is what provides the energy to charge to the exclusion zone. Exclusion zones have a negative charge and they absorb light at 270 nanometers that is a normal characteristic for electrons laid out in a ring structure.
Ice has the same sheets made up of a ring structure in the shape of a chicken wire. However, protons attach the oxygen compounds between the layers which turns ice into solid with a neutral charge. The sheets can are tightly pressed when the protons are detached and the area between each layers are shifted leaving a gap between the oxygen compounds. The same results are produced even if the sheets are arranged in six other positions.